Biomonitoring Studies:

Caux, C., O’Brien, C., & Viau, C. (2002). Determination of firefighter exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene during fire fighting using measurement of biological indicators. Applied occupational and environmental hygiene, 17(5), 379-386.

Dobraca, D., Israel, L., McNeel, S., Voss, R., Wang, M., Gajek, R., … & Das, R. (2015). Biomonitoring in California firefighters: Metals and perfluorinated chemicals. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57(1), 88.

Edelman, P., Osterloh, J., Pirkle, J., Caudill, S. P., Grainger, J., Jones, R., … & Prezant, D. (2003). Biomonitoring of chemical exposure among New York City firefighters responding to the World Trade Center fire and collapse. Environmental health perspectives, 111(16), 1906.

Fent, K. W., Eisenberg, J., Snawder, J., Sammons, D., Pleil, J. D., Stiegel, M. A., … & Dalton, J. (2014). Systemic exposure to PAHs and benzene in firefighters suppressing controlled structure fires. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 58(7), 830-845.

Pleil, J. D., Stiegel, M. A., & Fent, K. W. (2014). Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns. Journal of breath research, 8(3), 037107.

Shaw, S. D., Berger, M. L., Harris, J. H., Yun, S. H., Wu, Q., Liao, C., … & Kannan, K. (2013). Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California. Chemosphere, 91(10), 1386-1394.


Health Outcome Studies:

Ahn Y, Jeong K. Mortality due to malignant and non-malignant diseases in korean professional emergency responders. PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 3, 2015.

Alexander, B. M., & Baxter, C. S. (2014). Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing – A potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 11(5), D43–D48. doi:10.1080/15459624.2013.877142.

Aronson KJ, Tomlinson GA, & Smith L. (1994). Mortality among fire fighters in metropolitan Toronto. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 26:89-101.

Austin, C. C., Wang, D., Ecobichon, D. J., & Dussault, G. (2001). Characterization of volatile organic compounds in smoke at municipal structural fires. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A, 63(6), 437-458.

Baris D, Garrity T, Telles J, Heineman E, Olshan A, Zahm S. Cohort mortality study of Philadelphia firefighters. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 39, pp 463-476, 2001.

Bates MN. (2007). “Registry-based case-control study of cancer in California firefighters.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 50(5):339-44.

Baxter, C. S., Hoffman, J. D., Knipp, M. J., Reponen, T., & Haynes, E. N. (2014). Exposure of firefighters to particulates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, 11(7), D85-D91.

Bolstad-Johnson, D. M., Burgess, J. L., Crutchfield, C. D., Storment, S., Gerkin, R., & Wilson, J. R. (2000). Characterization of firefighter exposures during fire overhaul. AIHAJ-American Industrial Hygiene Association, 61(5), 636-641.

Clapp, R. W., Jacobs, M. M., & Loechler, E. L. (2008). Environmental and occupational causes of cancer: new evidence 2005-2007.Reviews on environmental health, 23(1), 1-38.

Daniels, R. D., Bertke, S., Dahm, M. M., Yiin, J. H., Kubale, T. L., Hales, T. R., … & Pinkerton, L. E. (2015). Exposure–response relationships for select cancer and non-cancer health outcomes in a cohort of US firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (1950–2009). Occupational and environmental medicine, oemed-2014.

Daniels, R. D., Kubale, T. L., Yiin, J. H. (2013). Mortailty and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of US firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago, and Philadelphia (1950-2009). Occup Environ Med, vol. 0, pp 1-10.

Daniels, R. D., Kubale, T. L., Yiin, J. H., Dahm, M. M., Hales, T. R., Baris, D., … Pinkerton, L. E. (2014). Mortality and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of US fire fighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (1950-2009). Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71(6), 388–397.

Dodson, R. E., Perovich, L. J., Covaci, A., Van den Eede, N., Ionas, A. C., Dirtu, A. C., … & Rudel, R. A. (2012). After the PBDE phase-out: a broad suite of flame retardants in repeat house dust samples from California. Environmental science & technology, 46(24), 13056-13066.

Fabian, T., Borgerson, J. L., Kerber, S. I., Gandhi, P. D., Baxter, C. S., Ross, C. S., … & Arch, M. (2010). Firefighter exposure to smoke particulates. Underwriters Laboratories.

Hammond, S. K. (1999). Exposure of US workers to environmental tobacco smoke. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107(Suppl 2), 329.

Heyer N, Weiss NS, Demers P, & Rosenstock L. (1990). “Cohort Mortality Study of Seattle Fire Fighters: 1945-1983.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 17:493-504.

Huston, T. N. (2014). Identification of Soils on Firefighter Turnout Gear from the Philadelphia Fire Department.

Jankovic, J., Jones, W., Burkhart, J., & Noonan, G. (1991). Environmental study of firefighters. Annals of occupational hygiene35(6), 581-602.

Kang, D., Davis, L. K., Hunt, P., & Kriebel, D. (2008). Cancer incidence among male Massachusetts firefighters, 1987-2003. American journal of industrial medicine51(5), 329-335.

Kellen, E., Zeegers, M., Paulussen, A., Vlietinck, R., Van Vlem, E., Veulemans, H., & Buntinx, F. (2007). Does occupational exposure to PAHs, diesel and aromatic amines interact with smoking and metabolic genetic polymorphisms to increase the risk on bladder cancer?; The Belgian case control study on bladder cancer risk. Cancer letters, 245(1), 51-60.

Krishnan, G., Felini, M., Carozza, S. E., Miike, R., Chew, T., & Wrensch, M. (2003). Occupation and adult gliomas in the San Francisco Bay Area. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine45(6), 639-647.

LeMasters, G. K., Genaidy, A. M., Succop, P., Deddens, J., Sobeih, T., Barriera-Viruet, H., … & Lockey, J. (2006). Cancer risk among firefighters: a review and meta-analysis of 32 studies. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 48(11), 1189-1202.

Ma, F., Lee, D. J., Fleming, L. E., & Dosemeci, M. (1998). Race-specific cancer mortality in US firefighters: 1984-1993. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine/American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine40(12), 1134-1138.

Ma, F., Fleming, L. E., Lee, D. J., Trapido, E., Gerace, T. A., Lai, H., & Lai, S. (2005). Mortality in Florida professional firefighters, 1972 to 1999. American journal of industrial medicine47(6), 509-517.

Ma, F. (2003). Cancer incidence and general mortality in a cohort of Florida firefighters. ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis.

Milham, S. (2009). Most cancer in firefighters is due to radio-frequency radiation exposure not inhaled carcinogens. Medical hypotheses73(5), 788-789.

Organtini, K. L., Myers, A. L., Jobst, K. J., Reiner, E. J., Ross, B., Ladak, A., … & Dorman, F. L. (2015). Quantitative Analysis of Mixed Halogen Dioxins and Furans in Fire Debris Utilizing Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS). Analytical chemistry.

Paget-Bailly, S., Guida, F., Carton, M., Menvielle, G., Radoï, L., Cyr, D., … & Luce, D. (2013). Occupation and head and neck cancer risk in men: results from the ICARE study, a French population-based case–control study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine55(9), 1065-1073.

Pukkala, E., Martinsen, J. I., Weiderpass, E., Kjaerheim, K., Lynge, E., Tryggvadottir, L., … & Demers, P. A. (2014). Cancer incidence among firefighters: 45 years of follow-up in five Nordic countries. Occupational and environmental medicine, oemed-2013.

Sama, S. R., Martin, T. R., Davis, L. K., & Kriebel, D. (1990). Cancer incidence among Massachusetts firefighters, 1982–1986. American journal of industrial medicine18(1), 47-54.

Solbu, K., Daae, H. L., Thorud, S., Ellingsen, D. G., Lundanes, E., & Molander, P. (2010). Exposure to airborne organophosphates originating from hydraulic and turbine oils among aviation technicians and loaders. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 12(12), 2259-2268.

Stang, A., Jöckel, K. H., Baumgardt‐Elms, C., & Ahrens, W. (2003). Firefighting and risk of testicular cancer: Results from a German population‐based case‐control study. American journal of industrial medicine43(3), 291-294.

Tornling, G., Gustavsson, P., & Hogstedt, C. (1994). Mortality and cancer incidence in Stockholm fire fighters. American journal of industrial medicine,25(2), 219-228.

Tsai, R. J., Luckhaupt, S. E., Schumacher, P., Cress, R. D., Deapen, D. M., & Calvert, G. M. (2015). Risk of cancer among firefighters in California, 1988–2007American journal of industrial medicine.

Youakim, S. (2006). Risk of cancer among firefighters: a quantitative review of selected malignancies. Archives of environmental & occupational health61(5), 223-231.

Zeig-Owens, R., Webber, M. P., Hall, C. B., Schwartz, T., Jaber, N., Weakley, J., … & Prezant, D. J. (2011). Early assessment of cancer outcomes in New York City firefighters after the 9/11 attacks: an observational cohort study. The Lancet378(9794), 898-905.


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